The boycott aimed to force the predominantly racist society to treat blacks with the normal level of respect and courtesy, to hire black drivers and for the middle row of the bus seats to be open for those that sit there first. She was often bullied by white children and had to fight back.

Robert Cook does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Her own mother had been threatened with physical violence by a bus driver, in front of Parks who was a child at the time. The name of the group was the “Montgomery Improvement Association” (MIA), and its first president was Martin Luther King Jr., who was still unknown then. By Antonia Čirjak on February 2 2020 in Society. In November 1956, the US Supreme Court issued a brief and narrow ruling that, in the wake of the Brown decision, racial segregation on private buses in Montgomery was unlawful under the Fourteenth Amendment. The court ruled that segregated public schools deprived African Americans of their entitlement to “equal protection of the laws”. When they met he was working to free the nine Scottsboro boys and she joined these efforts after they were married. Today is National Voter Registration Day! 2. In Australia, students from the University of Sydney undertook their own “freedom ride” in 1965 to expose racism against the country’s indigenous inhabitants. Parks was a seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama when, in December of 1955, she refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white passenger.

5. Parks was a lifelong activist and a hero to many, including Nelson Mandela. Although what she did may seem like something insignificant to the younger generations of today, it was an astonishingly brave thing to do, and it changed the entire world for the better. 10 Things You Didn't Know About Rosa Parks. She started being more active in the civil rights movement in 1943 when she began working as a secretary for the NAACP. She lived for most of that time in Detroit in the heart of the ghetto, just a mile from the epicenter of the 1967 Detroit riot. The nonviolent direct action protests that followed in cities such as Birmingham and Selma would eventually bring African Americans in the South an unprecedented degree of political and social power. We made it easy for you to exercise your right to vote! Sign up for membership to become a founding member and help shape HuffPost's next chapter, Register to vote and apply for an absentee ballot today.

In 1965 Parks got her first paid political position, after over two decades of political work. She was working numerous jobs and managed to finish her high school studies in 1933. As soon as they heard of Parks’ arrest, Women’s Political Committee leader Jo Ann Robinson and veteran trade unionist E. D. Nixon set about mobilising a community-wide boycott of the buses. Although what she did may seem like something insignificant to the younger generations of today, it was an astonishingly brave thing to do, and it changed the entire world for the better.

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott.The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks rejected bus driver James F. … The family moved to Montgomery; Rosa went to school and became a seamstress. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a 42-year-old African-American seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man while riding on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama.For doing this, Parks was arrested and fined for breaking the laws of segregation. Initially she wasn't romantically interested because Raymond was more light-skinned than she preferred, but she became impressed with his boldness and "that he refused to be intimidated by white people." Parks had been thrown off the bus a decade earlier by the same bus driver. Rosa Parks' refusal to leave her seat sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott and is considered the beginning of the modern Civil Rights Movement. Even today, the Black Lives Matter movement in the United States – sparked by the unlawful police killing of African Americans – demonstrates that the activist spirit unleashed in Montgomery in 1955 lives on. He later hired her to work with constituents as an administrative assistant in his Detroit office. The black press, culminating in JET magazine's July 1960 story on "the bus boycott's forgotten woman," exposed the depth of Parks' financial need, leading civil rights groups to finally provide some assistance. The actions of Rosa Parks played an enormous role in the fight for civil rights. Her maiden name was McCauley. Parks’ protest did not come out of the blue. Her defiance sparked the push for racial equality, which brought civil rights superstars such as Martin Luther King Jr into the public eye, and changed the world forever. Professor of American History, University of Sussex. Rosa Parks chose to be arrested instead of giving up her seat and became a symbol of the fight against an unjust, racist system. Aware of the racial politics of hair and appearance, she tucked it away in a series of braids and buns -- maintaining a clear division between her public presentation and private person. Her husband, she said, liked her hair long and she kept it that way for many years after his death, although she never wore it down in public.

10. Rosa Parks has gone down in history as an ordinary, elderly black woman who spontaneously kick-started the modern African American civil rights movement. She was a model citizen, employed, married, and well versed in politics, which made her the perfect choice for the attempt to fight segregation laws. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott . 7. In the 1940s, she worked at an air force base for a while, and because it was federal property, there was no racial segregation there, which was an eye-opening experience for Parks. Parks and her husband lost their jobs after her stand and didn't find full employment for nearly ten years. 9. Rosa Parks was a famous activist during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. Her husband was her political partner.

Another time, she held a brick up to a white bully, daring him to follow through on his threat to hit her. This event incredibly saddened Rosa Parks.

After her arrest and release, the members of the NAACP started to plan a bus boycott. Her actions helped raise international awareness of racism in the United States. Part of HuffPost Black Voices. Her family kept a gun in the house, including during the boycott, because of the daily terror of white violence. After her arrest, Parks was continually threatened, such that her mother talked for hours on the phone to keep the line busy from constant death threats. In 1954, the US Supreme Court verdict in the case of Brown v Board of Education signalled federal opposition to racial segregation. Or so the story goes. Parks helped secure his primary victory by convincing Martin Luther King, Jr. to come to Detroit on Conyers's behalf.

(from The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks by Jeanne Theoharis).

During her childhood, she suffered from poor health and had attended mostly rural schools. Rosa Parks was born in 1913 (February 4), in Tuskegee, Alabama.

The fight against racism is still ongoing, but people like Rosa Parks are responsible for making it grow to a tremendous size. Raymond's input was crucial to Parks' political development and their partnership sustained her political work over many decades. Parks spent more than half of her life in the North. She worked alongside the Black Power movement, particularly around issues such as reparations, black history, anti-police brutality, freedom for black political prisoners, independent black political power, and economic justice. She journeyed to Lowndes County, Alabama to support the movement there, spoke at the Poor People's Campaign, helped organize support committees on behalf of black political prisoners such as the Wilmington 10 and Imari Obadele of the Republic of New Africa, and paid a visit of support to the Black Panther school in Oakland, CA. Parks was an internationalist. 6. In December 1955, Rosa Parks' refusal as a Black woman to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, sparked a citywide bus boycott. She was arrested after the driver called the police. In fact, Rosa Parks was just 42 years old when she took that famous ride on a City Lines bus in Montgomery – a town known for being the first capital of the pro-slavery Confederacy during the American Civil War.

Rosa Parks died in 2005. Parks was a lifelong activist and a hero to many, including Nelson Mandela. She married barber Raymond Parks in 1932, and the couple joined the Montgomery National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Parks was far more radical than has been understood. The fight against racism is still ongoing, but people like Rosa Parks are responsible for making it grow to a tremendous size. The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". Eight days after 9/11, she joined other activists in a letter calling on the United States to work with the international community and no retaliation or war. When the Klu Klux Klan went on rampages through her childhood town, Pine Level, Ala., her grandfather would sit on the porch all night with his rifle.